Select one of the three research categories:
History and Development of the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) and the Nurturing Parenting Programs®.
In 1978, Dr. Bavolek developed the Adolescent Parenting Inventory (API) as a doctoral student at Utah State University. The Adolescent Parenting Inventory (API) was designed to assess the parenting beliefs and practices of abused and non-abused adolescents. Responses to the API would indicate the risk level of pre-parent teens in replicating the abusive and neglecting parenting practices they experienced during the process of growing up.
Critical to the study was identifying the parenting practices that represent child maltreatment. In essence, what are the practices of child abuse and neglect? Five specific behaviors were identified and validated from the on-going research with abused and non-abused teens. The constructs of child maltreatment are:
The research findings of the study indicated that teens with verified histories of abuse and neglect did indeed express significantly (P <.001) more abusive parenting beliefs in all five constructs than teens without verified histories of maltreatment. Gender also indicated significant (P < .001) differences. Males as a population expressed more abusive parenting practices than females.
Research studies continued in assessing risk levels of adult and teen parent populations. Teen parents and adult parents charged with child abuse and/or neglect did indeed express significantly (P<.001) more abusive parenting beliefs and practices than adult and teen parents without verified charges of maltreatment.
Today, the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI-2) is widely utilized both nationally and internationally, having assessed nearly 3 million adults and teens since its initial development in 1978.
In 1980, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) funded a half-million dollar, six state research project to Dr. Stephen Bavolek while he was at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. The purpose of the research was to develop and validate a proven program to treat and prevent child abuse and neglect. The grant was awarded to Dr. Bavolek for his years of research in developing and validating the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI-2).
The Nurturing Parenting Program® (NPP) was developed and validated in 1983 utilizing the five parenting constructs of the AAPI to form the foundation of the lessons of the Nurturing Parenting Program®. In this manner, the AAPI provided the level of risk assessment and the Nurturing Parenting Program® provided the treatment. The NIMH study showed remarkable and significant changes in positive family interactions. Findings of the three year project included:
Important to recognize that in the mid-1980s, no valid or published parenting programs were available for families charged with child maltreatment. The Nurturing Parenting Program® was the first family-based program designed specifically for parents who were identified as abusive and/or neglecting of their children (treatment) or who were high risk for child maltreatment (prevention/intervention).
Based on the findings of the initial NIMH study, the Nurturing Parenting Program® for School Age Children was recognized by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP), and Substance Abuse, Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), and other government and state agencies as an evidence-based program; the only parenting program for the treatment of child abuse and neglect.
In November 2000,OJJDPdevoted an entire issue of their Newsletter to the quality of the Nurturing Parenting Program as a proven treatment program. Years later, the California Evidence Based Clearinghouse (CEBC) also recognized the research and findings of the Nurturing Parenting Programs® as evidence-based programs.
The National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP) developed as a branch of SAMHSA also recognized the research findings and the effectiveness of the Nurturing Programs® as evidence-based programs. Over the years, thirty-five additional programs and studies have been conducted. The results of these studies are available on line attesting to the effectiveness of the Nurturing Parenting Programs®. Links are provided to NREPP web site and to the Summary Research Report of the Nurturing Programs, and to the CEBC web site.
The field of parenting education, particularly as it pertains to providing parenting education to families charged with child abuse and neglect, is witnessing a dramatic change in what is being recognized as an evidence-based program.In conducting research to support the effectiveness of a program, there are essentially two categories of research design that are acceptable in the field: Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Research. The design most used in experimental studies is called Randomized Control Trial (RCT).
A book written in the 1960s by Donald T. Campbell and Julian C. Stanley called Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Research remains a classic in the field. According to Stanley and Campbell, RCTs are best used to test the efficacy or effectiveness of various types of medical interventions within a patient population. The key feature of the RCT is subjects for the study are assessed for eligibly and recruitment. Assessment of study subjects is an attempt to control for differences. After each subject is assessed, those who are accepted for suitability are randomly assigned to two groups:
Quasi-experimental research designs have a history of extensive use in social services. The most common quasi-experimental research designs are simple pre-posttest, posttest only, pre-posttest comparison groups, and pre-posttest comparison groups with longitudinal follow up. All four of these models are very acceptable research designs, especially when measuring the effectiveness of a treatment, or parenting program.
The California Evidence Based Clearinghouse (CEBC) along with the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) are two organizations that have changed their criteria for what constitutes “strong evidence supporting the efficacy of a program.” Both have adopted the RCT as their primary research model and their criteria for receiving the highest possible rating. CEBC has also included that the study’s results be published in a peer review journal with a time contingent of two years which helps determine if the study is acceptable for evidence based recognition.
Prior to this change, the Nurturing Parenting Programs® were highly rated, evidence-based programs for families receiving services in Child Welfare. After the adoption of the RCT model as evidence of programs effectiveness the Nurturing Program for Parents and their Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers® is no longer afforded that designation.
RCT is reserved for trials that contain control groups in which groups receiving the experimental treatment are compared with control groups receiving no treatment. Withholding services from families who are mandated by the courts to complete parent education is ethically inappropriate, in addition to jeopardizing the health and lives of children.
In 1980-83 when the first Nurturing Parenting Program® was developed and validated, there were no proven and published programs for families charged with child maltreatment. In essence, there was nothing to compare the results of families attending the Nurturing Program®. Families involved with Social Services for child maltreatment were not receiving parenting education from a validated, evidence-based parenting program. There were not any validated parenting programs on the market. A decision was made to run a quasi-experimental pre-posttest, longitudinal research design instead to test the effectiveness of the Nurturing Program®. The results were phenomenal.
Since the validation for the first Nurturing Parenting Program for Parents and their School age Children®, twenty additional Nurturing Programs have been developed and validated using the pre-posttest longitudinal follow-up quasi-experimental design. See the NPP validation report.
In the pre-posttest, longitudinal design research model, the criteria for effectiveness are the proven cessation of child maltreatment and the elimination of recidivism. It did not matter if the NPP was any better than no program if the child abuse continued. In essence, the effectiveness of the NPP was measured against the practices of maltreatment. Were the practices of maltreatment replaced with the practices of Nurturing Parenting? And what was the recidivism rate among parent(s) completing the NPP? The stated goal was a recidivism rate of 0. The outcome was a recidivism rate of 9%. At the time, the recidivism rate among families completing treatment for child abuse was between 25% to 47%.
Family Development Resources has been providing cost-effective, validated approaches to help treat and prevent child abuse and neglect for over 35 years. Families learn new attitudes and skills that reduce dysfunction in families, with follow-up studies indicating low rates of recidivism. The Nurturing Programs® have and will continue to make a significant contribution to the overall health and functioning of families.
The ratings remain very high for the Infant, Toddler and Preschooler Program as well as all the Nurturing Programs® as published in the National Registry of Evidence Based Programs and Practices (NREPP), the US Department for Defense and the hundreds of service providing agencies across the country.
Family Development Resources at 800.688.5822 or email us at firstname.lastname@example.org
Q. Who is NREPP and what do the letters represent?*
Answer: OK now follow along closely because it gets a bit confusing:
Q. What does “Evidence-Based” mean?
Answer: As defined by SAMHSA (Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration) a program of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, in the health care field, evidence-based practice (also called EBP) generally refers to approaches to prevention or treatment that are validated by some form of documented scientific evidence. What counts as evidence can vary. The Nurturing Parenting Programs are all evidence-based programs.
Q. Are there any concerns or limitations to EBPs?
Answer: One concern often stated in the health care, mental health, and social work fields is too much emphasis on EBPs in some cases restrict practitioners from exercising their own judgment to provide the best care and treatment for individuals. For this reason, many organizations have adopted definitions of evidence-based practice that emphasize balancing the “scientific” with the “practical.”
Q. What does “fidelity to the model” mean?
Answer: Fidelity to the model occurs when implementers of research-based programs or interventions closely follow the protocols and techniques that are defined as part of the intervention. For example, conducting assessments and evaluations using the recommended or provided tools. Flexibility to fidelity occurs when differences among ethnic, racial, and/or linguistic groups and awareness of how people’s cultural background, beliefs, traditions, socioeconomic status, history, and other factors affect their needs and how they respond to services.
Q. Nurturing Programs are listed in NREPP under the category “Legacy Programs”. What does that mean and why did Nurturing and a few other programs get labeled as Legacy?
Answer: Between 1997 and 2004, programs were reviewed by SAMHSA and were rated Effective and/or Promising. After 2004, the rating criteria changed because the standard of “effectiveness” changed. Programs that were rated between 1997 and 2004 retained the label Legacy, referring to their measured effectiveness nearly 15 years ago.
*Information generated to reply to the aforementioned questions was taken from the 1/28/ 2010 NREPP and SAMHSA newsletter.
Q. Is the NPP curricula trauma-Informed?
Answer: Many trauma cases require counseling and/ or therapy from intense and long term to moderate and short term. Nurturing program are psycho-educational in their approach and can be used in conjunction with other services to help individuals suffering the effects of trauma. As a stand alone, the Nurturing Programs would not suitable as a treatment for individuals suffering from severe traumatic experiences.
Q. Explain the AAPI, NSCS and PARTI and how they interact with each other.
Answer: The Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) assess an individual's attitudes about raising children.
The Nurturing Skills Competency Scale (NSCS) provides a comprehensive profile of the individuals' present quality of life in addition to the quality of their childhood, the quality of their of the relationship with their children and with their adult partner. The NSCS also assesses an individuals' knowledge of parenting practices and the frequency in which the parents are utilizing these practices.
The Parenting Attitudes of Raising Teens Inventory (PARTI) assess the similarities and differences parents and their adolescents have regarding the life style of being a teen. Adolescence is a very fun but difficult period of development for many families. Differences in opinions, demands, dating, sexual activity, and independence often result in strained parent and teen relationships. The PARTI is a 40 item inventory designed to bring to awareness the similarities and differences parents and teens have as they both learn the skills of negotiation and compromise aimed at increasing the positive qualities of their relationship.
Q. Do the Nurturing Parenting Programs adhere to the Protective Factors? What are the protective factors?
Answer: The six Protective Factors developed by the Center for the Study of Social Policy (CSSP) is a research-informed, cost-effective strategy to increase family stability, enhance child development and reduce child abuse and neglect.. The six protective factors and integrated into the lessons of each of the Nurturing Programs. The six factors include: 1. Nurturing and Attachment; 2. Knowledge of Parenting and Youth Development; 3. Parental Resilience; 4. Social Connections; 5. Concrete Supports for Parents; Social and Emotional Competence of Children. The Nurturing Programs incorporate all of the Protective Factors in the lessons in each of the major Nurturing Programs.